Words and ideas discussed in The Beginning of Infinity.

Explanation: A statement with a "because" which answers a "why" question. The "because" and "why" are often left unstated but implied.

Fallibilism: The recognition that there are no authoritative sources of knowledge, nor any reliable means of justifying knowledge as true, probable, or better than other ideas.

Fungible: Identical in every respect.

Good/bad explanation: Explanation that is hard/easy to change while still solving the same problem. The issue is how adapted the explanation is to the problem it addresses.

(Human) Problem: A conflict between two human ideas, or between an idea and reality. Problems are inevitable, which is not bad because they can be solved.

Inductivism: The misconceptions that ideas are obtained by generalizing or extrapolating experiences, or that repetition of observations provides justification.

Justificationism: The misconception that knowledge can only be genuine or reliable if it is justified by some source or criterion.

Knowledge: Ideas that solve problems. (Not: justified, true belief.) Better knowledge is more adapted to its problem (harder to vary while still solving it).

Meme: An idea that is a replicator. A rational meme replicates because people find it valuable. An anti-rational meme replicates by disabling its holder's rational thinking so that one has no choice but to spread it.

Open Society: An open society is dominated by rational memes and makes progress. By contrast, a static society is dominated by anti-rational memes and changes so slowly that people do not notice.

Parochial: Mistaking appearance for reality, or local regularities for universal laws.

Person: Universal knowledge creator.

Popper’s criterion of good political institutions: Good political institutions make it as easy as possible to discover whether a ruler or policy is a mistake, and to remove mistaken rulers or policies without violence.

Rational: Attempting to solve problems by seeking good explanations; actively pursuing error correction by creating criticisms of both existing ideas and new proposals. Approaching disagreements with force is irrational.

Reach: The ability of an idea about one topic to be useful for another topic. General purpose ideas have high reach.

Realism: The idea that the physical world exists in reality, and that knowledge about it is possible.

Relativism: The misconception that statements cannot be objectively true or false, but can only be judged relative to an arbitrary standard, such as a parochial culture's beliefs.

The jump to universality: Gradually improving systems often undergo a sudden large increase in functionality, becoming universal in some domain.

The principle of optimism: All evils are caused by insufficient knowledge.

Tradition: Long lived existing knowledge.

Universal: Able to do anything possible in a domain. For example, a universal computer can do any computations which any other computer could possibly do.

Wealth: The repertoire of physical transformations that one is capable of causing.